The Vodafone sim can be used in other compatible device, like the Quectel BG96.
You can upload your own sketch to the SARA AFF R410M board.
I don't have any experience with Google Firebase nor with the Quectel BG96.
By default the maker sketch send an udp message to a server (by default AllThingsTalk) you can change this in the settings.
I believe at this time, for nb-iot, only udp is supported. If you really need tcp/ip I suggest you would look into LTE-M.